PalArch's Journal of Archaeology of Egypt / Egyptology http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae <p>www.PalArch.nl accepts multidisciplinary papers with topics such as:<br /><strong><em>All Fields of Management, Social Sciences, Arts, and Humanities </em></strong><br />Aerial archaeological survey, Archaeological techniques, theory etc., Education, Law, Economics, Accounting, Finance, Human Resource Management, Marketing, Architecture, Epigraphy, History of science, sociology, Morphology, Museology, Papyrology, Philology, Preparation/conservation, Religion, Underwater archaeology, English Literature, Mathematics</p> <p><img src="http://www.palarch.nl/public/site/images/admin/scimago.jpg" width="205" height="224" /></p> en-US editor@palarch.nl (Editor) support@palarch.nl (Webmaster) Fri, 23 Oct 2020 14:29:09 -0400 OJS 3.2.1.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 USING LITERATURE ABOUT EVIL TO LEAD STUDENTS TOWARDS THE GOOD http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/33 <p>Evil is a complex entity, a category of reasoning that is both interesting and challenging to researchers. Over the past half century, there have been many studies on the roots of evil and solutions to prevent and limit evil. However, the highlighted measures such as punishment, detention and re-education are just efforts to approach the consequences of the problem. In fact, in many countries today, the situation of school violence is still complicated and tends to increase. It is necessary to promote the search for prevention and early intervention solutions to help students be immune to evil. My article is an attempt to approach that aim. The article examines the meanings of the literature on evil and proposes some principles and measures to use it as an attractive and insightful educational tool to help prevent students' instincts from evil. The primary research questions include: Should we pay attention to teach students about the evil mentioned in the literary text? If yes, what do we teach and how much? Is writing about evil good or bad for educating students away from evil? How does the obsession with evil in literature guide and inspire students to go toward the good?</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Literature about Evil, Students towards the good</p> Hoang Thi Mai Copyright (c) 2020 http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/33 Sun, 25 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0400 USING LITERATURE ABOUT EVIL TO LEAD STUDENTS TOWARDS THE GOOD http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/31 <p>Evil is a complex entity, a category of reasoning that is both interesting and challenging to researchers. Over the past half century, there have been many studies on the roots of evil and solutions to prevent and limit evil. However, the highlighted measures such as punishment, detention and re-education are just efforts to approach the consequences of the problem. In fact, in many countries today, the situation of school violence is still complicated and tends to increase. It is necessary to promote the search for prevention and early intervention solutions to help students be immune to evil. My article is an attempt to approach that aim. The article examines the meanings of the literature on evil and proposes some principles and measures to use it as an attractive and insightful educational tool to help prevent students' instincts from evil. The primary research questions include: Should we pay attention to teach students about the evil mentioned in the literary text? If yes, what do we teach and how much? Is writing about evil good or bad for educating students away from evil? How does the obsession with evil in literature guide and inspire students to go toward the good?</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Literature about Evil, Students towards the good</p> Hoang Thi Mai Copyright (c) 0 http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/31 Sun, 25 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0400 THE SWITCHING BEHAVIOR DETERMINANTS OF SHARIA BANKING: ROLES OF GENDER AND EDUCATION http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/38 <p>This study aims to analyze the determinants of the switching behavior of Sharia banking. The primary data of the study was derived from questionnaires. Using a random sampling technique, the study employed a sample of 205 respondents. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, analysis of comparative and partial least square (PLS). The findings indicate that determinants of switching behavior are Sharia compliance, internet banking, and employee friendliness. Furthermore, it suggests that there are significant differences in the switching behavior of sharia banking customers based on gender and education. The variable of Sharia compliance affects the switching behavior directly, and the intention to switch serves as a full mediation variable. This research has managerial implications on the improvement of Sharia banking comprehension to the higher level of education through a rational approach.&nbsp;</p> Siswanto, Nur Asnawi, Rini Safitri Copyright (c) 2020 http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/38 Sun, 25 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0400 THE LEVEL OF STUDENTS’ CREATIVE THINKING THROUGH SOLVING OPEN ENDED MATHEMATICS FROM LEARNING STYLE http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/48 <p>Mathematics is one of the scopes that supporting the development of knowledge and technology, therefore the students must increase creative thinking. This study is aimed to explore and describe the level of students’ creative thinking through visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learning styles in solving the problem of <em>open ended</em> Math. The method is using a descriptive qualitative approach and interview. The techniques of data collection were the questionnaire result of the most extreme learning style the subject of the study was the ninth grade students of Senior High School, six students in which every two students became the representative of each learning style – visual, auditory, and kinesthetic. The primary data of this study is the students’ answers to the test and interviews. The result of this study showed that: (1) the level of students’ creative thinking through visual learning style was in level 4 (very creative), especially in solving Math problem of Scalene Triangle, (2) the level of students’ creative thinking through auditory learning style was in the level 3 (creative), especially in solving Math problem of Scalene Triangle, and (3) the level of students’ creative thinking through kinesthetic learning style was in the level 1 (poor creative), especially in solving Math problem of Scalene Triangle.</p> Ardianik, Edy Widayat, Nailul Izzah, Kusmiyati Copyright (c) 2020 http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/48 Wed, 28 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0400 EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY IN MALAYSIAN PRIVATE HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/50 <p>This study investigates the effect of employee productivity among employees in Private Higher Educational Institutions, in Malaysia. The independent variables are job motivation, supervisor support, financial rewards and working hours on employee productivity. 198 employees from 10 different private higher educational institutions have responded to the questionnaire of this study. Based on the results, it shows there is a direct and significant relationship between job motivation and working hours on employee productivity and vice versa towards financial rewards and working hours. The study implies that employee productivity increase with high job motivation and flexible working hours. However, supervisor support and financial rewards are secondary compared to job motivation working hours in relation to employee productivity.</p> Mahiswaran Selvanathan, Neeta Jayabalan, Gurmeet Kaur Saini, Mahadevan Supramaniam, Norasmahani Hussin Copyright (c) 2020 http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/50 Wed, 28 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0400 LEGAL PROBLEMS OF IMPOSING THE TABOO ON CHILD LABOR IN THE EURASIAN ECONOMIC UNION: INTERNATIONAL AND NATIONAL ASPECTS http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/51 <p><strong><em>Introduction</em></strong> The progress achieved by the states of the Eurasian Economic Union in the 90s of the last century was the most noticeable in solving the problem of the abolition of child labor expressed in the adoption of laws on children, the formation of legal institutions of child protection in difficult situations and mechanisms called upon to ensure the application of international legal standards on child labor. &nbsp;</p> <p><strong><em>Methods</em></strong><strong>:</strong> The systematic analysis and the comparative legal methods of studying the child labor problems in the states of the Eurasian Economic Union in terms of analyzing its current state and ensuring the effective implementation of the ban on child labor in the Eurasian Economic Union are determinant.</p> <p><strong><em>Analysis.</em></strong></p> <p>The article examines the legal problems of implementation of the child labor proscription in the states of the Eurasian Economic Union. Based on a system analysis, the necessity to solve the problem of the conceptual and categorical framework is justified as one of the leading areas of legislation improvement and law enforcement performance assurance on the implementation of the ban on child labor in the Eurasian Economic Union. The analysis of the conceptual and categorical framework is aimed at identification and determination of the main systemic connections between the concepts in the legislation of the child labor sector, which are of key importance in the problem of implementing an effective proscription of child labor in the countries of the Eurasian Economic Union. The article analyzes the problems of new institutional mechanisms for the protection of children's rights in the EAEU countries. The absence of the separate body dealing with the protection of children's rights (except for Russia and Kazakhstan), as well as the tendency to significant weakening the of labor inspectorates activity in the EAEU countries, including the implementation of the child labor proscription are put a focus on.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><strong>:</strong> The performed analysis made it possible to come up with justification for the substantial change in the ideological and hierarchical framework of legal institutions in the field of child labor in Eurasian Economic Union states and the need for addition. At the same time, the concept of "easy work", "labor nutrition", as well as the adoption of legal norms that explain the nature of relationships on work performance by children and their types in the informal economy, solve the problems of child labor prosecution Importance in doing. Consolidation of the content definition of the named concepts and standards in labor law that demonstrates the fundamental relationship between the abolition of child labor and the promotion of decent employment for workers under 18 years of age.</p> Kubanychbek S. Ramankulov Copyright (c) 2020 http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/51 Wed, 28 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0400 SPECIAL ASPECTS OF METROPOLITAN AREA (BASED ON THE MATERIAL OF THE HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL EVOLUTION OF THE CITY OF NUR-SULTAN) http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/52 <p>The strategic aim lies in coming to a decision on the specific and particular characteristics of the historical and cultural development of <em>Nur-Sultan</em> city. A range of traditional general scientific research methods has been used. They are analytical, synthetic, and comparative. Among other things, the author refers to statistical data that reflects socially significant development processes of the city, which is currently called <em>Nur-Sultan</em>. The article’s observation can be summarized in the following context. Sociocultural dynamics in the context of the transformation (renaming) of cities in <em>Akmolinsk – Tselinograd – Akmola – Astana – Nur-Sultan</em> system is taken into consideration. The statement is substantiated that the very dynamics of the city’s growth in question were evolutionary, consistent, systemic in nature. The remarkable thing is that in the spring of 1961 a new city appeared on the map of the USSR: <em>Akmolinsk</em> was renamed <em>Tselinograd</em>. In reality, a relatively small city has become the center of the region of the virgin land, the heart of the project for the all-Union development of virgin lands (North Kazakhstan and South Siberia). There is a description of the period, relatively short, but certainly significant in the context of the outlined thematic field, when the analyzed city was called <em>Akmola</em>. It has been stated that there is a task-oriented successive vector of public support, which has been provided to the city over the course of decades. The emphasis is put on the importance of political will and perseverance in giving <em>Akmola</em>, <em>Astana</em>, and then <em>Nur-Sultan</em> not only the nominal status of capital but also the actual position of the city, which is of fundamental importance for the socio-political, cultural, economic growth of the whole Kazakhstan. Succession and consistency are two basic factors that made a small settlement of the nineteenth century <em>Akmolinsk </em>a capital city of Nur-Sultan at the end of the first twenty years of the 21st century.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> ZhannarBeisova Copyright (c) 2020 http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/52 Wed, 28 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0400 SOCIO-PHILOSOPHICAL ASPECTS OF POLITICAL CULTURE FORMATION IN THE PROCESS OF GLOBALIZATION http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/53 <p>The relevance of the research topic is due to the increasing role of Central Asia in world politics in recent years. Uzbekistan, including the Republic of Karakalpakstan, occupies a special place in the system of relations between Russia and the countries of Central Asia. On the one hand, the republic is an important economic partner of the Russian Federation, on the other; it always occupies a special position in some political issues and is a difficult ally of Moscow. All the above indicates that from the point of view of prospects for cooperation and options for developing further interaction between the CIS countries and Central Asia, it is important to focus on the Republic of Karakalpakstan.</p> Khatira S. Kamalova, Gulnara U. Sherniyazova, Gulnara T. Kutymova, Nesibeli K. Zaretdinova, Zhaksylyk K. Biyimbetov Copyright (c) 2020 http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/53 Wed, 28 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0400 MSMEs OF SAUDI ARABIA: STATUS AND PROBLEMS http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/55 <p>Micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs) are considered as the engine of growth in the developing economy.&nbsp; MSMEs boost and accelerate the rate of growth of development of the economy and utilize the resources optimally and provide employment. In Saudi Arabia, the contribution of MSMEs is only 21% which is lower than the average of the advanced countries. Hence, there is a need to enhance the contribution of MSMEs in the GDP of Saudi Arabia to shift the economy from oil to other sectors. The objective of the study is to consider the current status and problems and challenges of the MSMEs of Saudi Arabia. The study considers the secondary data obtained from the General Authority for Statistics of Saudi Arabia and an extreme polar study conducted to identify the MSMEs’ economic activity-wise.&nbsp; MSMEs of wholesale trade, manufacturing, and mining and quarrying are profitable more than the other sectors’. The employees of medium-size establishments of Professional, scientific and technical activities, and insurance and financial sector activities face the training need problems. The Saudi MSMEs face the problems of low demand for the products, unavailability of the required human resource, and access to finance. There is a need to establish a training institute by the government and provide an organized platform for the distribution of the products internationally. There should be a special financial assistance program should be launched after identifying the financial need and requirements of the MSMEs to enhance the contribution and attain the goals of vision 2030.</p> Anis Ali Copyright (c) 2020 http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/55 Wed, 28 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0400 THE EFFECT OF KNOWLEDGE SHARING ON JOB PERFORMANCE IN JORDANIAN PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/56 <p>This study aims to test the impact of knowledge sharing on job performance in Jordanian public universities. To fulfill this aim, a random sample consisted of (350) faculty members who were selected from two Jordanian public universities (Yarmouk University, Jordan University of Science&amp; Technology). Responses were collected through structured questionnaires from (244) faculty members of different disciplines at these two universities, with a response rate of 70%. &nbsp;The analyzed data showed that the level of sharing knowledge (both implicit and explicit), and the level of job performance among faculty members is moderate. It also showed that the knowledge sharing process has an impact on job performance among these faculty members. The study provides some recommendations for the researchers in this subject.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Fawzieh Mohammad Masa'd Copyright (c) 0 http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/56 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0400 ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND ITS IMPACT ON PERFORMANCE http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/57 <p>This study aimed to identify the impact of Entrepreneurship on improving performance in Jordanian tourism companies. The researcher used the descriptive analytical approach based on a comprehensive field survey of the study community consisting of managers and administrative staff in Jordanian tourism companies, for the purposes of data collection. The researcher also used the random sample method to collect the study sample. Work has been done to develop a questionnaire, as the number of sample members reached 403 male and female employees. The study reached a set of results, Among the most important of them, are: Some Jordanian tourism companies were distinguished by a high level of Entrepreneurship, and the level of performance in some Jordanian tourism companies was high, the study also recommended increasing concern for developing electronic systems that are useful in making decisions to achieve the company's goals and urging management to provide new capabilities.</p> Ahmad Khaleel Abu Haniyi, Ali Awad Alwag, Hamzeh Alhawamdeh, Nayef Ali Alzoub Copyright (c) 0 http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/57 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0400 THE EFFECT OF KNOWLEDGE SHARING ON JOB PERFORMANCE IN JORDANIAN PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/59 <p>This study aims to test the impact of knowledge sharing on job performance in Jordanian public universities. To fulfill this aim, a random sample consisted of (350) faculty members who were selected from two Jordanian public universities (Yarmouk University, Jordan University of Science&amp; Technology). Responses were collected through structured questionnaires from (244) faculty members of different disciplines at these two universities, with a response rate of 70%. The analyzed data showed that the level of sharing knowledge (both implicit and explicit), and the level of job performance among faculty members is moderate. It also showed that the knowledge sharing process has an impact on job performance among these faculty members. The study provides some recommendations for the researchers in this subject.</p> Fawzieh Mohammad Masa'd Copyright (c) 0 http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/59 Fri, 30 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0400 THE EFFECT OF KNOWLEDGE SHARING ON JOB PERFORMANCE IN JORDANIAN PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/63 <p>This study aims to test the impact of knowledge sharing on job performance in Jordanian public universities. To fulfill this aim, a random sample consisted of (350) faculty members who were selected from two Jordanian public universities (Yarmouk University, Jordan University of Science&amp; Technology). Responses were collected through structured questionnaires from (244) faculty members of different disciplines at these two universities, with a response rate of 70%. The analyzed data showed that the level of sharing knowledge (both implicit and explicit), and the level of job performance among faculty members is moderate. It also showed that the knowledge sharing process has an impact on job performance among these faculty members. The study provides some recommendations for the researchers in this subject.</p> Fawzieh Mohammad Masa'd Copyright (c) 2020 http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/63 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0400 ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND ITS IMPACT ON PERFORMANCE http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/65 <p>This study aimed to identify the impact of Entrepreneurship on improving performance in Jordanian tourism companies. The researcher used the descriptive analytical approach based on a comprehensive field survey of the study community consisting of managers and administrative staff in Jordanian tourism companies, for the purposes of data collection. The researcher also used the random sample method to collect the study sample. Work has been done to develop a questionnaire, as the number of sample members reached 403 male and female employees. The study reached a set of results, Among the most important of them, are: Some Jordanian tourism companies were distinguished by a high level of Entrepreneurship, and the level of performance in some Jordanian tourism companies was high, the study also recommended increasing concern for developing electronic systems that are useful in making decisions to achieve the company's goals and urging management to provide new capabilities</p> Ahmad Khaleel Abu Haniyi, Ali Awad Alwag, Hamzeh Alhawamdeh, Nayef Ali Alzoub Copyright (c) 2020 http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/65 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0400 WOMEN TRAFFICKING HATED IN INDONESIA: A CASE STUDY AT SOLUS PER AQUA (SPA) CENTERS IN JAKARTA, BOGOR, DEPOK, TANGERANG AND BEKASI (JABODETABEK) http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/68 <p>This study aims to describe the working patterns of the actors&nbsp;trafficking action&nbsp;for prostitution that include: the form of social networking used by actors to trap victims and the factors that encourage victims into the trap. This study used qualitative research and phenomenological research. Data collection techniques are in-depth interviews and literature studies. Subjects of research were victims of human trafficking that became commercial sex workers (CSWs) in the cities of Jakarta, Bogor,&nbsp;Depok,&nbsp;Tangerang&nbsp;and&nbsp;Bekasi&nbsp;(Jabodetabek), Indonesia. Based on the data of the result showed that the traffickers trapped the victims by offering work that high salary without skill and without certificates. The form of social networks that actors use in trapping victims used partial social networks and social interest networks. <strong>Originality / values:</strong> the factors that drive victims into the human trafficking trap are: First, poverty factors. Second, the difficulty reason in accessing work. Third, education factors. Fourth, family problem factors. Fifth,&nbsp;the culture of young marriage and divorce.</p> Ciek Julyati Hisyam, Syaifudin, Ikhlasiah Dalimoenthe, Sarkadi Copyright (c) 2020 http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/68 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0400 JURIDICAL REVIEW OF CRIMINAL VIOLENCE TO BIOLOGICAL CHILDREN IN INDONESIA http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/69 <p>This study was aimed to determine the juridical aspects governing violent crime on biological children. This research was qualitative research with a normative juridical approach. The method used in this research was a literature study and an exploratory method from the data of the brother. The object examined in this study was all aspects of the juridical relating to criminal acts of violence on biological children. Based on the classification of violence on children consists of four categories, namely: 1) physical violence, 2) psychological violence, 3) sexual violence and 4) social violence. Based on KPAI data from 2017 to 2019, KPAI had received 10,656 reports of complaints of cases of violence experienced by children. Specifically, in 2019, KPAI had received 1,192 complaints related to child abuse with the highest cases concerning family and care. From these data acts of violence against children can occur due to the following factors: 1) parent factors, 2) child factors, 3) social environmental factors. To anticipate and reduce the crime of violence against children, the government had made legal rules with binding sanctions that are expected to provide a deterrent effect to the perpetrators. As for juridically the legal regulations governing criminal acts of violence on children are: 1) Law Number 35 of 2014 concerning Child Protection, 2) Book of Criminal Law (KUHP), 3) Law Number 23 of 2004 concerning the Elimination of Domestic Violence Stairs, 4) Law Number 4 of 1979 concerning Child Welfare.</p> H. Nurianto RS Copyright (c) 2020 http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/69 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0400 JOURNALISTS’ PERCEPTIONS OF ISLAM-RELATED TERMINOLOGIES IN MASS MEDIA DISCOURSE ON TERRORISM http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/70 <p>The use of Islam-related terminologies in news coverage of Islam has become a contentious issue amongst scholars, researchers, and religious experts. Therefore, this study aims to explore the journalists’ perceptions with regard to the use of Islam-related terminologies in mass media discourse on terrorism. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with four journalists from selected eastern and western mass media. Using purposive sampling, two journalists were chosen from the eastern and the western mass media respectively. The data were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. The findings revealed that controversial Islam-related terminologies are used in negative contexts. The degree of negativity depends on the context of discourse, country, and media outlet” via which the topic is covered. The use of Islam-related terminologies in the media outlets could be influential in making the audience to perceive Islam as a religion of terrorism. It was envisaged that this study would advance our understanding regarding the use of Islam related terminologies in news coverage of Islam from the journalists’ perspective.</p> Zein Bani Younes, Mohd Nazri Latiff Azmi, Isyaku Hassan Copyright (c) 2020 http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/70 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0400 THE ROLE OF JOB SATISFACTION IN MEDIATING THE EFFECT OF PERSONALITY TRAITS ON MILLENIAL EMPLOYEES’ INTENTION TO QUIT:EVIDENCE FROM INDONESIA http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/71 <p><strong><em>Purpos</em></strong><strong>e – </strong>This article is a test regarding the role of job satisfaction as a mediating variable on the effect of “the big five” personality traits on the Millennial Employee’s Quit Intention.</p> <p><strong><em>Design/methodology/approach</em></strong><strong> - </strong>This study is quantitative research based on positivism using research instruments as well as by conducting a series of hypotheses testing by using a multivariate analysis model and PLS-SEM approach using the WarpPLS tool. The study was conducted on the Millennial generation at Napan Group, a national company in Indonesia with various types of industries located in Jakarta, Bogor, Bekasi, Semarang, and Palembang. The determination of the number of samples used the Isaac and Michael method, while the sampling technique used the disproportionate stratified random sampling method.</p> <p><strong><em>Findings </em></strong><strong>- </strong>Based on an analysis with the Structural Equation Model (SEM), the results of the study showed job satisfaction only partially mediates the effect of neuroticism personality trait on the intention to quit, while in other four traits, namely extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness to experience, job satisfaction does not provide a mediating role. The implications of research on systems and human resource management practices are needed to be done by creating retention strategies for millennial employees by mapping their personality traits and paying more attention to employees with a neuroticism personality trait. Job satisfaction also has an important role as its positive effect can significantly reduce employees’ intention to quit.</p> <p><strong><em>Originality/Value</em></strong><strong> - </strong>This study provides empirical evidence on the research model of the effects of “The Big Five” personality traits on the intention to quit with job satisfaction as a mediator variable in the Millenials Generation. Previous studies on the direct relationship between "The Big Five" personality traits and the intention to quit reported different results. The result of this study is a direct relationship that will provide new insight studies on the effect of the "The Big Five" personality traits on the Intention to Quit on the millennial generation.</p> Yayan Hadiyat, Endang Siti Astuti, Hamidah Nayati Utami, Tri Wulida Afrianty Copyright (c) 2020 http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/71 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0400 THE POLITICAL ROLE OF THE BRITISH AGENCY IN BASRA (1763-1779) http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/80 <p>Britain was interested in the Arab Gulf region at the beginning of the seventeenth century with the aim of trade, and it did not have any political and strategic interest in the region, but its commercial activity quickly turned into political activity through the establishment of a number of commercial agencies in the Gulf region, most notably Basra, to which the agency was transferred from Port Abbas In Persian 1763, and from here begins the political history of Britain in the Persian Gulf region, in which Britain plays a prominent role in the internal and external events of Basra until 1779, when the activity of the British Agency in Basra ceased as a result of the political instability and the turmoil of the situation that resulted from the Persian occupation.</p> Bushra Kadhim Odah Copyright (c) 2020 http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/80 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0400 JOB SATISFACTION AS A MEDIATION ROLE AND SPIRITUAL INTEL-LIGENCE AS A MODERATION EFFECT TO COMPENSATIONAL JUS-TICE TO THE GOVERNMENT BANKING EMPLOYEES PERFORMANCE IN MALANG CITY http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/81 <p>Employee performance is a major issue in the banking sector business, due to increasingly fierce competition in winning the hearts of consumers. Several factors play a role in improving employee performance that must receive serious attention from banking man-agers. Because high employee performance will play a role to improve the performance of banking organizations and vice versa. Employee performance was influenced by employee job satisfaction, the fairness of employee compensation, which is strengthened by the spiritual intelligence of employees. The purpose of this research was to analyze the effect between fairness compensation and employee performance, with the mediating role of employee job satisfaction and moderation of spiritual intelligence. This research is a quantitative study using PLS analysis and a sample of 145 government bank employees in Malang City. The results indicate that a compensatory justice does not have a direct effect on employee performance, but compensation justice has a direct effect on job satisfaction. Job satisfaction has a direct influence on employee performance. Mediation tests showed that job satisfaction mediates to the effect between fairness of compensation and employee performance. Spiritual intelligence does not moderate to the effect between fairness of compensation and employee performance. Therefore, it is mean that a spiritual intelligence does not strengthen or weaken the effect between fairness of compensation and employee performance in the banks, Malang. Originality from this research, it was founded that spiritual intelligence is not a moderator of the effect between fairness compensation and employee performance, but is a predictor/antecedent for employee performance, so the higher level of spiritual intelligence will increase to employee performance.</p> Noermijati Noermijati, Agung Nugroho Adi, Ema Zahra Firdaus, Hanantya Gilang Mas-terizki Copyright (c) 2020 http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/81 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0400 HUMANISTIC APPROACHES IN EDUCATION SYSTEM OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 4.0 http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/83 <p>The adaptation of humanism theory has become an essential requirement in education system due to the mobility of technology. Hence, it is important develop the students in order to assist them to face the challenges of the Industrial Revolution of 4.0. This research aims to study the application of humanistic approaches (integrative and interconnective) and its effectiveness towards the students. This research is based on qualitative method and the data is collected by using questionnaires, observation, interviews and documentation. The research subjects are teachers and students from SMAN "X" in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The result shows that: (1) the importance of the teacher's understanding in educating the humanistic approaches to empower the student’s potentials in all dimensions, (2) the implementation of humanistic approaches in education to handle the internal and external obstacles, (3) the importance on humanistic approaches in academic field. Therefore, the humanistic approaches should be based on three powers which are: the power to, power with, power within power to enhance the student ability to overcome the challenges of the Industrial Revolution 4.0.</p> Haryanto, Siti Irene Astuti Dwiningrum Copyright (c) 2020 http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/83 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0400 SCORING INSTRUMENT DEVELOPMENT OF CHARACTER EDUCATION BASED ON LOCAL CULTURE FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/84 <p>This study aims to produce instruments that meet the requirements to measure the characters consisting of caring, polite, honest, disciplined attitude for fifth-grade students of elementary schools in Yogyakarta. The approach used in this research is Research and Development with the Plomp model combined with the steps of developing the Djemari Mardapi instrument. Instrument of character education assessment has been declared valid and reliable. The content validity was tested through experts and Aiken's index was obtained for each item ≥ 0.60 so that the validity coefficient was accepted and considered to be reasonable and it could be said that the instrument was valid in content. The construct validity was carried out by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The results of the exploratory factor analysis showed the KMO value of 0.926 with Sig Bartlett’s Test of 0.000. Confirmatory factor analysis shows the Chi-Square value of 0.024; RMSEA = 0.020; GFI = 0.98; SRMR = 0.021; AGFI = 0.97; CFI = 0.99; and RFI = 0.97. Cronbach’s Alpha reliability estimates are 0.869. The results show that: 1) the instrument can be used because it has been substantially fulfilled, construction and language aspects based on the results of the Aiken's V validity test and 2) the results of the validity testing in confirmatory factor analysis show that all items in the local culture-based character education assessment instrument can be used to assess the character of fifth-grade elementary school students in Yogyakarta.</p> Sukadari, Eko Wahyunanto Prihono, Juang Kurniawan Syahruzah, Mohamad Maulana Magiman, Gulzhaina K. Kassymova Copyright (c) 2020 http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/84 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0400 EMPOWERING STUDENT ENGAGEMENT IN L3 THROUGH TEXT CHAT DISCUSSION http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/85 <p>Efforts towards the simplification of Arabic grammar as a third language (L3) require the utilization of social media to foster active language learning competencies. Hence, this study aims to explore students’ usability and attitude towards WhatsApp application in the linguistic learning of Arabic. Participants of the study were 136 students under the Arabic language program at a public university in Malaysia. The qualitative survey data involved 25 students out of the total who selected through a purposive sampling technique. This survey study incorporates a mixed method of research with questionnaires adapted from two different studies; Gamble &amp; Wilkins (2014) and Izyani &amp; Mohamed Amin (2016). The qualitative survey data collected via semi-structured group discussions conducted in a bilingual (Malay and Arabic) environment in a WhatsApp group. The findings as a whole reflect the effectiveness and usability of WhatsApp application in complementing face-to-face learning in which the application acts as a tool for Arabic linguistic learning. The implication of the study shows the effort towards Arabic linguistic simplification is effective through WhatsApp applications by enhancing student-level attitudes. Nevertheless, studies on Arabic linguistic simplification based on Arab scholarly models through social media application need to be explored.<em>.</em></p> Harun Baharudin, Zunita Mohamad Maskor Copyright (c) 2020 http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/85 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0400 EFFECTIVENESS OF JOB READINESS COURSE ON CAREER SELF-EFFICACY BETWEEN TWO GROUPS OF UNDERGRADUATES http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/86 <p>Career readiness is an important element for undergraduates to undergo a transitional period from education to the world of work, which involves the processes of career planning, goal selection, and decision making. Thus, this research was aimed to study the effectiveness of a job readiness course on career self-efficacy among undergraduates who have enrolled in the LMCR 3422 Job Readiness Course. This was quasi-experimental research that studied the difference in career self-efficacy before and after joining this course for two different groups. LMCR 3422 Job Readiness Couse was conducted throughout 14 weeks and encompassed a variety of career activities, including mock interview, industrial sharing, and resume clinic with the aims of assisting students to gain occupational information and skills, apply the learned skills into practices and build career profile. The new element, such as career counseling and guidance, had been included in the second group. The result showed that there was a significant difference in terms of career self-efficacy before and after joining the job readiness course. The result also indicated that the second group showed better differences than the first group. The recommendation and implications of this study had been discussed.</p> Mohd Izwan Mahmud, Tan Yao Xiong, Nurul Nadia Rosli, Chang Peng Kee, Zalinda Othman, Salleh Amat, Abu Yazid Abu Bakar Copyright (c) 2020 http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/86 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0400 THE REPRESENTATION OF THE JUDICIAL CONFLICT BETWEEN THE LAW AND POWER IN TAWFIQ AL-HAKIM'S THE SULTAN DILEMMA http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/87 <p>Tawifq Al-Hakim is one of the most prominent Egyptian luminary and a visionary writer who has left his creative mark in modern Arab literature particularly in the field of theater as he plays the most prominent role as the sole founder of this field in which his influence is continued to this day. In his prolific literary works, he deals with many themes that reflect the political and social reality of Egypt and show a special interest in developing patriotism supporting the principles of justice, equality, freedom, and consolidating democracy. One of Al-Hakim's literary innovations (which strengthens his literary standing) is embodied in his inspiration for the themes of his many plays from the heritage of Egypt in its different eras. Thus, his play Al Sultan Al-Hair (<strong><em>The Sultan's Dilemma</em></strong>) is inspired by the popular history of the fifteenth century during the Mamluk Sultans era. The protagonist of the play, the Sultan, is put in a very critical situation that requires him to solve the biggest crises that encounter his reign by choosing one of the two suggestions to overcome it. The problem lies in the burden entailed by his choice and that he must bear on his own. He has to choose between applying the law which means being sold in a public auction (the Chief Cadi's suggestion) or relying on power and terrorizing the people (the Vizier's suggestion). The paper sheds light on the conflict between the law and power, the justifications provided by each party, the rationale for the Sultan's preference for one of them, and the consequences of his performance.</p> Susan Raheem Rahman, Lamiaa Ahmed Rasheed, Zeena Salim Hammoudi Copyright (c) 2020 http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/87 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0400 THE FUNDAMENTAL THEORIES FOR DEVELOPING AN INNOVATIVE TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/88 <p>In this literature review, there are some reasons why we need an innovative education program for preparedness preservice teachers. Developing teacher quality is crucial in education and is still a challenge in Indonesia. These challenges require teacher knowledge to master concepts, technologies, pedagogics, for preservice teachers. However, the facts show that the majority of preservice teachers lack adequate pedagogical skills despite being familiar with the technology.&nbsp; It is important to design an educational program for the professional development of teachers, especially preservice teachers, to use an approach to the development of teacher preparation that integrates content, teaching, and learning integrated with technology. The main question is what are the fundamental theories that can be used as the basis for developing an innovative teacher education program?</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Arif Rohman, Asri Widowati, Mohamed Nor Azhari Azman Copyright (c) 2020 http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/88 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0400 STUDENTS’ PATRIOTIC VALUES FORMATION BY MEANS OF A FOREIGN LANGUAGE AS AN IMPORTANT ISSUE http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/90 <p>The research is relevant due to the necessity to prepare devoted specialists who are able to act according to society's values, and ready to work for the good of the country. Thus, the article focuses on the specifics of students’ patriotic values formation. The key element here is a foreign language course at University that offers all necessary facilities for the conditions for the personal values formation. Therefore, it is important to look into this formation process by means of a foreign language. The purpose of the research is to analyze some practical aspects while using didactic materials with a patriotic approach. We state that axiological potential should be engaged. Thus, a specially prepared set of didactic materials is recommended. The main scientific approaches are axiological, personality-oriented, and systematic. Besides, theoretical and empirical methods have been used. The method of generalization and synthesis of value formation experience was applied while analyzing psychological and pedagogical literature on the research topic. The interview and pedagogical observation methods allowed the value formation process to be analyzed. In order to conduct experimental work didactic materials contributing to the students’ patriotic values formation have been prepared. The article presents an analysis of various studies on value formation. This has enabled didactic materials to be clearly structured. Information blocks (a text with the set of tasks) are included in the course of the lessons. The texts are about important events, traditions, heroic deeds of past years, and contemporary ones. The experimental research work has shown that didactic materials with a valuable and patriotic approach are quite effective for patriotic values formation. The results of the article will be helpful for teachers of higher education and researchers of value formation.</p> Tatiana Vladimirovna Larina, Anastasiia Sergeevna Sukhanova, Bakhtiyor Rozikovich Kodirov, Elizaveta Alexandrovna Kuchinskaya, Elena Vladimirovna Borisova Copyright (c) 2020 http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/90 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0400 REALIZING THE BARRIER TO THE PRACTICE OF E-DEMOCRACY IN VIETNAM http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/91 <p><strong>E</strong>-government can make the Government more transparent in the public eyes and make the interactions between agencies and the public more convenient, and ideally, increase the public trust by facilitating public participation, leading the so-called e-democracy. Then, this hypothesis raises the question as to whether (and to what extent), e-government can accompany e-democracy, and in the case of Vietnam, the efforts to promote e-government are associated with the democratic performance of their political system? The intent of this paper is to provide answers to the questions of what constitutes the barriers to the development of e-democracy in the case of Vietnam. In doing so, I will first concentrate on research to answer the question about how the legal framework of e-government has been built, how citizens might connect with government via the Internet, to obtain information, to give comments, to elect or vote anything related to public issues.&nbsp;</p> Tran Van Long Copyright (c) 2020 http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/91 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0400 ANCESTOR WORSHIPING BELIEFS IN THE BELIEFS AND RELIGION LIFE OF VIETNAMESE PEOPLE: NATURE, VALUES, AND CHANGES OF IT IN THE CURRENT PERIOD http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/92 <p>In all forms of folk beliefs, ancestor worship is a universal traditional belief form of the Vietnamese people. As a Vietnamese people, “everyone worships their ancestors, everyone worships their parents and grandparent”. Ancestor worship is a common belief in the whole country. It is a belief that expresses the deeply humanistic spirit of the Vietnamese people and has great values ​​in human life. So, what is the nature of ancestor worship? What are the values of ancestor worship in life? And in the context of globalization, how has this belief changed? This study focuses on analyzing the above contents, thereby highlighting the value of this belief in the spiritual life of Vietnamese people; to point out the positive and negative changes of this belief in the current period; from that, take the right measures to bring into play the positive and limit the negative side of those changes in the spiritual life of Vietnamese people.</p> Nguyen Trong Long, Vu Hong Van Copyright (c) 2020 http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/92 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0400 THE HISTORY OF KIRKUK TELEVISION AND ITS SOCIAL AND CULTURAL IMPACT 1967-1999 http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/93 <p>The Television is a means of communication which combines between the voice and animation, it contributes to enhance the social and cultural consciousness of the audience through presenting educational programs and proper and healthy ways of living. Based on that, this research shades the light on the history of the Tv in Kirkuk between (1967-1999) and its cultural and social impact on the City’s society since its foundation in 1967 until 1999 where the station was moved to Baghdad for political reasons</p> Dilshad Oumar Abdul Aziz Copyright (c) 0 http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/93 Fri, 30 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0400 STUDY AND ANALYZE THE REALITY OF THE DEFICIT IN THE PUBLIC BUDGET OF IRAQ; THE SOLUTIONS & MEASURES FOR FINANCING http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/94 <p>The concept of deficit in the public budget has become a chronic economic phenomenon that most countries of the world suffer, whether developed or developing, and which suffer from exceeding public expenditures to be more than public revenues. As this economic problem has direct effects on the national economy, and for this reason and others, increased interest in reducing the role of government spending, in addition to other apparent and complex reasons, part of which relates to public expenditures and another part to public revenues. It is evident that the public budget deficit in the oil countries in general, including Iraq, is related to the quantity of oil production and its international prices in addition to its relationship to spending and its structure, and the inability of successive governments until today to form financial buffers of crises from surpluses achieved in periods of oil price boom.</p> <p>Therefore, the necessity of working to gradually eliminate the rentier feature that remained prevalent in the Iraqi economy and the public budget after 2003 and the worsening deficit in it. Many visions and policies have emerged to address these imbalances in the public budget deficit and provide sources to finance this deficit, including rationalization of public spending and resource development through the formulation of a conscious policy to ensure diversification of national income sources that contribute to reducing dependence on oil revenues, in addition to adopting modern budgets to accurately establish the necessary estimates for government sector units for approval.</p> Ahmed H, Juhi Al Saedi Copyright (c) 0 http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/94 Fri, 30 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0400 THE HISTORY OF KIRKUK TELEVISION AND ITS SOCIAL AND CULTURAL IMPACT 1967-1999 http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/96 <p>The Television is a means of communication which combines between the voice and animation, it contributes to enhance the social and cultural consciousness of the audience through presenting educational programs and proper and healthy ways of living. Based on that, this research shades the light on the history of the Tv in Kirkuk between (1967-1999) and its cultural and social impact on the City’s society since its foundation in 1967 until 1999 where the station was moved to Baghdad for political reasons.</p> Dilshad Oumar Abdul Aziz Copyright (c) 0 http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/96 Fri, 30 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0400 THE HISTORY OF KIRKUK TELEVISION AND ITS SOCIAL AND CULTURAL IMPACT 1967-1999 http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/97 <p>The Television is a means of communication which combines between the voice and animation, it contributes to enhance the social and cultural consciousness of the audience through presenting educational programs and proper and healthy ways of living. Based on that, this research shades the light on the history of the Tv in Kirkuk between (1967-1999) and its cultural and social impact on the City’s society since its foundation in 1967 until 1999 where the station was moved to Baghdad for political reasons.</p> Dilshad Oumar Abdul Aziz Copyright (c) 2020 http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/97 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0400 Al-Madīna Al-Baddāla in Al-Farabi's Ārā’ Ahl Al-Madīna Al-Fāḍila Wa Muḍāḍḍātihā (The Virtuous City): An Alternative Name http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/102 <p>The paper discusses the name of the second ‘ignorant city’ of the faulty associations mentioned in Ārā’ ahl al-madīna al-fāḍila wa muḍāḍḍātihā (The Virtuous City) and Kitāb Assiyāsa Al-madaniyya (The Political Regime) by Abū Nasr al-Fārābī. In the first book the city is named بدالة (baddāla= changing city). In the second book, it is named نذالة (nadhāla= the city of meanness). The definitions of the two cities are almost identical which raises the question: why are there two different names for one city? On the other hand, when comparing both the definitions with the two names, it becomes clear that none of them is compatible with the meaning wanted. The paper, therefore, discusses this issue by adopting the hypothesis that the word in question is misread most probably by the ancient scribes due to confusing the Arabic diacritical characters composing it. The paper goes through all the similar diacritical characters that could be confused, reviews all the words possible resulting from combining these characters, and eventually, studies the lexical meanings of these words and compares them to the city's definitions. The paper concludes that the compatible name is ندّالة naddāla (the city of avidity, avarice, and meanness).</p> Mohammad Alesa Copyright (c) 2020 http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/102 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0400 A Spurred Spiral Ramp for the Great Pyramid of Giza http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/5 <p>An easier and equally feasible configuration of spiral ramps for the construction of the Great Pyramid of Giza (Brichieri-Colombi, 2015), would be for a spiral ramp extended as a spur tangential to the pyramid rather than orthogonal to it. The general arrangement, which could have been used for many other large pyramids as well, is similar to that proposed by Lehner (1985: 129-132), but without the mass of temporary works that Lehner envisaged. It avoids the need to create a trench over the body of the pyramid during construction, as proposed by Arnold (1991: 98), while respecting the constraints imposed by the available tools, workforce capabilities and design features of the pyramid. Finding the ideal configuration would not have been easy for the ancient builders, but this paper demonstrates how they could have done so with models. It also addresses the key construction issues associated with spiral ramps. An analysis of the construction effort required demonstrates that a ramp slope of 1:6 (9.5⁰) would have minimised the work involved. This finding suggests that pyramid construction hypotheses should be evaluated in terms of both feasibility and optimality to assess which are the most likely to have been adopted by ancient Egyptians.</p> Stephen Brichieri-Colombi Copyright (c) 2020 PalArch's Journal of Archaeology of Egypt / Egyptology http://palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/5 Fri, 23 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0400